ASC Topic 326 – Current Expected Credit Losses

Give Credit Where Credit is Due

For the non-public, non-financial sector, it took a while for the new standard on credit losses to get here. But it’s here now and breathing down our necks with a vengeance. CECL (pronounced cecil) was issued by the FASB in 2016. For the non-financial sector, it’s somewhat of a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Not that it was intended to be that way, but it just is. So beware. It’s a peer review “gotcha” event. As the song says, “Things ain’t what they used to be.” This article will address some CECL issues in a question-and-answer format.

  1. When was CECL’s (ASC 326) effective for non-public companies?

    ASC 326 was effective for all non-public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. So, in other words, it is effective for calendar year 2023 financial statements, including interim financial statements that begin in 2023.

    The interim financial statement’s effective date for non-public companies is a change from the customary practice of the FASB. Usually, for private companies, new standards are effective for interim financial statements the year after it is effective for the annual financial statements. When the original pronouncement was issued in 2016, that’s how it was – the interim financial statement’s effective date was a year later. However, this decision was later reversed by the FASB in an ASU released in 2018. This change may have flown under the radar screen for many busy accountants.

  2. To whom does CECL apply?

    While the standard was primarily directed to financial institutions like banks and credit unions, it also applies to non-financial institutions. That includes construction companies, manufacturing companies, and non-profit entities, to name a few. However, as discussed in the next question, the standard does scope out specific areas.

  3. So, what is CECL, and which financial assets does it apply to?

    CECL stands for “current expected credit losses” related to financial instruments. The key phrase is “current expected.” The standard intends to inform the financial statement user what credit losses (bad debts) the company currently (upfront) expects to incur on its financial assets over the contractual life of those assets (the future). Generally, the standard applies to financial assets carried at amortized cost and includes:

    • Cash equivalents
    • Trade receivable
    • Contract assets (such as underbillings and retainage receivables)
    • Loans receivable/Notes receivable
    • Loans to officers and employees
    • Investment in debt securities held-to-maturity
    • A lessor’s receivables from sales-type or direct financing leases

    Notably, the following financial assets are not within the scope of CECL:

    • Receivables between entities under common control (see following two paragraphs)
    • Equity securities
    • Loans made to participants by defined contribution employee benefit plans
    • Pledge receivables of a not-for-profit organization
    • Lessor receivables from operating leases
    • Other financial assets measured at fair value through net income
    • Securities available-for-sale (though ASC 326-30 did make targeted changes to this area related to CECL)

    The AICPA’s Center for Plain English Accounting report for August 16, 2023, observed that “(T)he scope exception in FASB ASC 326-20-15-3f is for loans and receivables between “entities” under common control and makes no mention of “individuals.” Therefore, it is not clear based on the omissions in the plain language whether individuals (natural persons) such as a controlling shareholder are within the scope exception for CECL in FASB ASC 326-20-15-3f.”

    However, the article further states: “FASB staff has indicated that the scope exception for entities under common control also applies to natural persons (i.e., controlling shareholder) within a common control group. We should note that the scope exception for common control entities would NOT extend to an (sic) loan to an unrelated officer of one of the entities who did not hold a controlling financial interest.”

  4. What is the difference between the legacy standard and ASC 326?

    The former standard used an “incurred loss” methodology to recognize credit losses if it was deemed probable to be uncollectible. While probable is not defined, many practitioners consider probable equal to or greater than a 75% threshold. The collection loss had to be incurred and probable under the previous standard to be recognized.

    The new accounting standard’s model is designed to be forward-looking and considers the entire contractual life of a financial instrument. Moreover, it significantly reduces the threshold for recognizing credit losses. Under ASC 326, a credit loss can be recognized on financial assets, such as a class of trade receivables, at the asset’s inception, even if the likelihood of a loss is considered remote. CECL mandates that management consider expected credit losses throughout the entire life of a group of financial assets, regardless of the absence of any current signs of trouble. Accordingly, under CECL, losses are expected to be recognized sooner than losses were under legacy GAAP.

    Key takeaway: The loss recognition is forward-looking over the contractual life of the financial instrument, recognized at the asset’s inception, and the loss recognition threshold is considerably lower than previous GAAP.

  5. Does ASC 326 specify a particular way to estimate current expected credit losses?

    No. The standard is principle-based. The particular methodology used to arrive at the expected loss at the origination or acquisition date of the financial instrument is management’s decision. In a broad sense, the standard requires that the company base its estimate on:

    • Relevant information about past events, such as historical loss experiences,
    • Current conditions,
    • Reasonable and supportable forecasts.
    • For periods when the company cannot obtain supportable forecasts for expected credit losses, it may revert to historical loss information.

    ASC 326-20-30-7 states, in part, that “(A)n entity shall consider relevant qualitative and quantitative factors that relate to the environment in which the entity operates and are specific to the borrower(s).”

    Additionally, as stated in the AICPA’s Center for Plain English Accounting report, same date given above, “…CECL requires measurement of the expected credit loss even if that risk of loss is remote, regardless of the method applied to estimate the credit losses.”

  6. Can an entity ever have an expected credit loss of zero?

    It’s possible. But in most cases, it’s unlikely or even rare. The standard permits a zero credit loss in narrow situations where the expectation of not being paid is zero, even if a technical default were to occur. An example would be U.S. treasury securities guaranteed by the good faith and credit of the U.S. government, which can also print currency to retire the debt.

  7. Does ASC 326 require additional disclosure?

    As you probably expect, the answer is yes.

    On the balance sheet, there is a requirement to separately present the allowance for credit losses for financial assets measured at amortized cost, such as trade receivables, contract assets, and loans receivable. Also, investments in available-for-sale debt securities carried at fair value must present both amortized cost and allowance for credit losses parenthetically on the balance sheet.

    There are many required disclosures to achieve the stated objectives of ASC 326. For example, ASC 326 requires a roll-forward of the allowance for credit loss accounts. We suggest having your disclosure checklist for non-public companies readily available for reference as you draft the disclosures for financial instruments.

In summary, ASC 326, the credit loss standard, has a broad scope encompassing financial institutions and non-financial companies, including entities like construction firms. It applies to a wide array of financial assets measured at amortized cost, including items like trade receivables and contract assets. Notably, the threshold for recognizing credit losses has shifted from probable to remote, and this new standard mandates a forward-looking estimation of credit losses. It’s important to note that the new standard does not apply to specific financial instruments that are excluded, such as receivables between entities under common control or between companies and majority owners who are natural persons, in my opinion. Additionally, recognition is only required for amounts and disclosures considered material.

AIs Impact on the Accounting Industry

Brace for Impact

Tech entrepreneur Mark Cuban stated in recent years that artificial intelligence (AI) will dominate the landscape of the business world, so much so that entire industries could be relegated to near obsolescence.

One such industry he mentioned happens to be near and dear to our hearts: the 7,000-year-old accounting industry. After taking a few deep pulls from my handy hyperventilation bag, it got me thinking: is that truly possible? Far be it from me to spit in the face of the “experts,” but the accounting industry as a viable employment option will most decidedly not be disappearing any time soon. Will AI change our industry? Undoubtedly, and with great benefit to us and our clients, assuming we allow it.

AI has already entered our space in numerous manifestations, freeing up accountants at all levels to engage clients better and offer the expert advice we are hired to dispense. Here are some ways the accounting industry has benefitted and will continue to benefit from AI:

Easy access to financial information – most, if not all, accounting systems now have the ability to integrate data from various financial institutions and products, both historical and real-time. This allows for up-to-the-minute reporting, benefiting management and internal/external accounting staff in decision-making and forecasting. As Matt Bontrager, founder of Bookkeeping Blueprint writes in Entrepreneur, “…analyzing historical data, industry benchmarks and market trends, AI-powered systems can offer tailored recommendations and insights based on a business’s specific goals and objectives.”

Security – you know those texts you get from your bank when there is “suspicious activity?” That’s AI working for you. Our systems now have the tools to analyze patterns and red-flag irregularities. Incorporating AI systems into accounting software has dramatically enhanced fraud detection at the personal and business level, giving accountants another tool to protect the integrity of their financial information. Rather than going line-by-line through a general ledger and losing our minds in the process, we can utilize the tools AI provides to seek out oddities that may save a company some severe distress.

Improved audit efficiency – looking at the first two items above, it’s not a long leap to see that AI also benefits the auditing side of the accounting industry. Being able to set parameters and quickly search through a data set for anomalies has reduced time spent on various audit procedures compared to audits of years past. Similarly, having access to real-time client financial data allows for more efficient procedures around subsequent events (e.g., disbursements and receipts subsequent to year-end). In an article for, Jim Eicher noted, “As a result of big data and streamlined auditing, accountants are able to execute predictive and prescriptive financial analytics for their clients, which can make their clients’ financial processes more efficient, accurate and profitable. Centralized access to vast amounts of data previously dispersed across individual spreadsheets, PCs, mainframes and servers will promote faster, more efficient client audits.”

This small sample of how AI can assist accountants in their roles should inject at least a small dose of confidence in the sustainability of the accounting industry. AI should not be considered a monster coming to destroy our livelihoods; it should be viewed as a tool to make ourselves more valuable to our clients than we ever have. It’s already dramatically impacted our daily routines, even going unnoticed as we weave through newly implemented software or hidden in an update.

Accountants, however, can’t just sit back and let AI do all the work. We will need to study and understand the assistance it can provide. Resources abound related to AI. Whether taking one of the many AI-related CPE courses available or simply researching and garnering the knowledge on your own, it behooves accountants long-term to dive into this new world headfirst and learn how to harness its power.

Before long, if not already, the client will expect their accountant to offer advice and guidance related to AI tools that can benefit their business. Advancements in AI will most certainly lead to the more mundane and monotonous bookkeeping tasks being automated. As a result, greater opportunities will open for those in the industry to develop their soft skills developing strategies and truly advise their clients.

Cuban’s prediction of AI dramatically changing the business world’s landscape appears very much on point. However, where this takes respective industries remains to be seen. History has proven time and again that the future is nothing if not unpredictable, and only that change will be a constant. How this all plays out long-term will be determined later. Still, with some willingness to adapt and learn the capabilities AI offers our industry, we can continue to help our clients and ourselves sustain continued success for the foreseeable future.

ASC 606-Revenue Recognition-Uninstalled Materials

Living in a Material World

We’ve worked with the revenue recognition standard under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, for a few years now. How’s it going? Pretty good? Well, now may be an excellent time to reexamine a somewhat dubious but significant area of the standard.

This article will examine revenue recognition for materials cost related to a construction contract. Specifically, we will discuss critical factors that impact how a contractor who uses the cost-to-cost input method recognizes revenue associated with uninstalled materials.

The FASB has an underlying concern that cost-to-cost revenue recognition could result in an overstatement of revenue. ASC 606-10-55-21 points out a potential shortcoming of the cost-to-cost method input method. There may not be a direct relationship between the cost charged to the contract (the input) and the transfer of control of goods or services to the customer, resulting in an overstatement of revenue. For example, significant uninstalled materials charged to job cost may not be indicative of progress toward project completion and thus result in an overstatement of revenue.

It’s a Matter of Control. ASC 606-10-25-23 states that entities (contractors) recognize revenue as it satisfies performance obligations by transferring a promised good or service (i.e., an asset) to the customer. It further states that assets are transferred when (or as) the customer obtains control of the asset.

Under ASC 606, depending on when control of the materials passes to the customer, uninstalled materials are accounted for and presented in one of three ways:

  1. When Control has not Passed. Generic uninstalled materials, even those transferred or delivered directly to the job site, for which control has not been transferred to the customer, should be accounted for as inventory on the contractor’s balance sheet in accordance with ASC 330. Contract revenue (including profit) and cost are not recognized if control has not passed to the customer.
  2. When Control has Transferred, but Materials Not Installed. When control of the uninstalled materials (located in the contractor’s shop or at the job site) has passed to the customer, but the materials remain uninstalled, the contractor may recognize contract revenue, but only to the extent of the cost of the materials. No profit can be recognized before installation. ASC 606-10-55-21suggests that such an adjustment to the cost-to-cost input method may be required in the following circumstance:
    • When a cost incurred is not proportionate to the entity’s progress in satisfying the performance obligation. In those circumstances, the best depiction of the entity’s performance may be to adjust the input method to recognize revenue only to the extent of that cost incurred. For example, a faithful depiction of an entity’s performance might be to recognize revenue at an amount equal to the cost of a good used to satisfy a performance obligation if the entity expects at contract inception that all of the following conditions would be met:
      1. The good is not distinct.
      2. The customer is expected to obtain control of the good significantly before receiving the services related to the good.
      3. The cost of the transferred good is significant relative to the total expected costs to completely satisfy the performance obligation.
      4. The entity procures the good from a third party and is not significantly involved in designing and manufacturing the good.

    An excellent example of how to account for uninstalled materials when control of the materials has passed to the contract owner is found at Example 19- ASC 606-10-55-187 through 192.

  3. Control has Transferred, and Materials are Installed. The contractor may include the cost of the materials in the input method and fully recognize the cost and revenue, including profit.

Transfer of Control. ASC 606-10-25-25 states that:

(c)ontrol of an asset refers to the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset.

When, exactly, does control of materials transfer to the customer? Unfortunately, there is no simple answer. Like many things in life, the answer is maybe yes, maybe no, it ain’t necessarily so.

In short, control of the materials transfers to the customer when ownership transfers to the customer. And in our federalistic system, property ownership laws vary from state to state. It varies and is, therefore, complicated. Depending on the jurisdiction, ownership of the materials may transfer upon delivery to the job site; the transfer may be upon billing the materials, or the ownership transfer may be upon collection of the billing. And lien laws come into play that may determine the point when material ownership transfers from the contractor to the customer. The contract itself may stipulate when the transfer of ownership happens. Sorry, there is no boilerplate black-letter answer. Nevertheless, to properly recognize and account for revenue, it is essential to understand at what point ownership of the materials passes to the customer.

Because of this complexity, you should only travel this path when required. That is when doing so is necessary because it significantly affects revenue measurement which may not be indicative of progress toward project completion.

What About Material Designed and Manufactured by the Contractor?

Such materials should be charged directly to contract costs, and revenue (including all profit) should be recognized using standard cost-to-cost percentage of completion computations.

What About General Contractors or Prime Contractors?

Even general or prime contractors may find they are not exempt from the rules related to uninstalled materials. If the general or prime contractor has subcontractors with significant uninstalled materials whose costs are then billed to the general or prime contractor, those pay items may have to be excluded from their percentage of completion calculation in the manner discussed above.

Secure Act 2.0

Invest In The Future

On December 29, 2022, as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2023, President Biden signed the SECURE 2.0 Act of 2022 into law.

The law enacted numerous new retirement-related provisions with various effective dates. Many of the provisions are designed to encourage citizens to invest in their future. The law is very extensive and complex. Below is a snapshot of a few of the provisions.

  1. Required Minimum Distributions. The law requires when you reach a certain age, required minimum distributions (RMD) must be made from tax-sheltered accounts (IRA, 401(k)s) and, therefore, be subject to tax. The RMD age was raised to 73 in 2023 and 75 in 2033. So, if you turn 72 in 2023, you must take your first RMD by December 31, 2024, or you could delay it to no later than April 1, 2025. In addition, penalties for neglecting to take the RMD were cut in half beginning in 2023 and reduced further if promptly corrected. Also, starting in 2024, Roth accounts will be exempted from RMD requirements.
  2. Automatic Enrollment and Portability. Effective in 2025, almost all new retirement plans (401(k) and 403(b) plans) with employee deferral features must automatically enroll employees at a rate of at least 3%, but not more than 10%, contribution rate. Employees may choose not to participate. Companies in business for less than three years and employers with ten or fewer workers are exempted from this requirement. Plan service providers can also offer automatic portability services whereby an employee’s low-balance account can be transferred to a new plan.
  3. Catch-Up Provisions. Contribution catch-up provisions have increased for individual participants age 50 and older. The catch-up amount increased from $6,500 to $7,500 annually in 2023. In addition, in 2025, the catch-up contribution will increase to $10,000 annually (indexed for inflation) for participants ages 60 to 63. Beginning in 2024, all catch-up contributions for participants fifty and older earning over $145,000 the prior calendar year must be made on an after-tax basis in a Roth account.
  4. Part-Time Workers. Effective in 2025, eligibility to participate in defined contribution retirement plans changed under Secure Act 2.0 to include workers who attain 500 to 999 hours for two consecutive years.
  5. Student Loans. Effective 2024, student loan payments can be construed as employee retirement contributions to qualify for employer matching contributions. Accordingly, employees must certify annually to their employer the amount of their qualifying student loan payments.
  6. Retirement Plan Mandatory Cash-Out Limits. Effective in 2024, retirement accounts with balances of $7,000 or less for participants no longer employed by the sponsoring company can be paid out to the former employee. Previously, this amount was $5,000. The $7,000 amount is not indexed in future years.
  7. Emergency Savings. Beginning in 2024, defined contribution plans can make available a Roth-designated account eligible to accept emergency savings. Contributions would be limited to $2,500 annually, with the first four withdrawals a year distributed as tax-free and penalty-free. In addition, the contributions would be eligible for employer match if permitted under the plan’s terms.
  8. Self Correction. The number of infractions that can be self-corrected internally by a plan without submission to the IRS or DOL increased under the Act.
  9. Incentives to Participate. Effective in 2023, employers may offer modest incentives to increase participation in the retirement plan. However, the financial incentives must be de minimis and cannot be paid from plan assets.

Leases – A Follow-Up

Helpful Changes Made by the FASB

The FASB issued the much anticipated ASU No. 2023-01 on March 27, 2023. It made changes that affect related party arrangements between companies under common control. The positive changes will help smooth the road for this part of lease accounting. The changes affect two broad areas for related party leases: between entities under common control:

  1. Terms and conditions to be considered and,
  2. Leasehold improvements.

In a Nutshell: Companies with related party leases between entities under common control should elect the new practical expedient to strictly apply written terms and conditions of lease arrangements between entities under common control instead of the legally enforceable terms. NOTE: If the terms and conditions are unwritten, those terms can be (and should be) documented in writing during the transition to the practical expedient. Also, leasehold improvements associated with related party leases under common control are to be amortized over the useful life of the improvements to the controlled group (instead of the shorter of the remaining lease term or useful life of the improvements.)

Here are the key points:

  1. Common Control. First, ensure your “arrangement” qualifies for treatment under FASB ASU No. 2023-01 Common Control Arrangements (“Update”). The Update ONLY applies to related party arrangements between entities under common control. What is common control? The FASB Board does not define it. The Background Information and Basis for Conclusions section of the Update refers you to EITF Issue No. 02-5, Definition of Common Control in Relation to FASB Statement 141″ for help. It was issued several years back and summarized the SEC’s view of what is common control. Strictly speaking, the definition only applies to public companies. Regarding this Update, the FASB Board believes that common control should be understood broader for private companies than what the SEC staff dictated for public companies. The critical question is whether the lessee and lessor are controlled (more than 50%) by a common group.
  2. The Practical Expedient. ASC 842 generally requires arrangements to look at legally enforceable terms and conditions to determine if a  lease exists and how it should be classified and accounted for. However, the Update provides a practical expedient whereby the Company can apply the written terms and conditions (instead of legally enforceable terms and conditions) to determine the following:

    • Whether a lease exists, and if so,
    • The classification and accounting for that lease.

    The practical expedient may be applied on an arrangement-by-arrangement basis. IMPORTANT. If no written terms and conditions exist (including when an entity does not document existing unwritten terms and conditions in writing upon transition to the practical expedient), the Company is prohibited from applying the practical expedient. It must evaluate the enforceable terms and conditions to apply Topic 842. Not a good thing,

    Therefore, the Company must put unwritten terms and conditions in writing at the transition date to the practical expedient. If the terms and conditions are summarized in writing, then the written terms determine the classification of the lease. For example, if the written lease provides a lease term of one year, with no options to renew, the classification will be a short-term lease, assuming the Company made the short-term lease election.

  3. Leasehold Improvements. ASC 842 generally requires that leasehold improvements have an amortization period consistent with the shorter of the remaining lease term and the useful life of the improvements. The Update changes this for leasehold improvements associated with related party leases between companies under common control, whereby such leases are:

    • Amortized by the lessee over the useful life of the leasehold improvements to the common control group, regardless of the lease term, as long as the lessee controls the use of the underlying asset through a lease.
    • However, if the lessor obtained the right to control the use of the underlying asset through a lease with an unrelated party not under common control, the related party sublessee would generally amortize the leasehold improvements over a period that does not exceed the term of the lease between the lessee/intermediate lessor and the unrelated party.
    • If and when the lessee no longer controls the use of the underlying asset, this loss of control is accounted for as a transfer between entities under common control through an adjustment to equity.
  4. Effective Date. The practical expedient and leasehold improvements amortization amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been made available for issuance. If an entity adopts the amendments in an interim period, it must adopt them as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

    • As I’m reading it, if the Company’s annual 2022 financial statements have not been issued, then early adoption is permitted for the calendar year 2022 (and  every year end through December 31, 2023.)
  5. Transition Requirements for the Practical Expedient
    • Entities adopting the practical expedient in the Update concurrently with adopting ASC 842 (i.e., calendar year 2022 private clients) must follow the same transition requirements used to apply ASC 842.
    • IMPORTANT. The Company is permitted to document any existing unwritten terms and conditions of a common control arrangement before the date on which the Company’s first interim (if applicable) or annual financial statements are available to be issued in accordance with the practical expedient.
  6. Transition Requirements for Accounting for Leasehold Improvements
    • Companies adopting the amendments relating to leasehold improvements  concurrently with adopting ASC 842 may follow the same transition requirements used to apply ASC 842 or may use either of the prospective approaches described below to avoid retrospectively accounting for leasehold improvements:
      • Prospectively to all new leasehold improvements recognized on or after the date the Company first applies the amendments in this Update (January 1, 2022, for 2022 calendar year clients).
      • Prospectively to all new and existing leasehold improvements recognized on or after the date that the entity first applies the amendments in this Update (January 1, 2022, for 2022 calendar year clients), with any remaining unamortized balance of existing leasehold improvements amortized over their remaining useful life to the control group, determined at that date.

Time Shrinkage

“Don’t Squander Time…”

A lot is written on call center time shrinkage and ways to address it to increase productivity. This blog is not about call centers. This article is not based on scientific or statistical research. It’s not about whether time is real or illusionary (we’ll leave that for the theoretical physicists.) This article, instead, is about time as it relates to the accounting profession.

Those in public accounting believe that time is real. Over the years, time shrinkage has crushed us, causing many to miss untold evening newscasts, home-cooked meals, favorite TV programs, monster hide-and-seek with the kids, school events, concerts, sporting events, and sufficient sleep, to name just a few. And clients of public accountants think time is real too. That is, those who receive engagement quotes and invoices based on standard hourly rates and those who have habitual monthly deadlines.

Those in private accounting are keenly aware of the nature of time. First of all, it’s circular, not linear. Specific tasks are performed daily, some weekly, and others monthly or annually. And then it comes at you again, the same functions, ever so quickly – it’s circular. And this has nothing to do with Eastern philosophy. It just seems that way when you are in the thick of it.

Time is precious. Any bad habit, unnecessary interruption, meaningless process, or anything that snatches our time, never to be seen again, is not our friend. But, on the other hand, what saves time should be identified and cherished.

Time Snatchers. Based on my observations, below are some typical thieves of our time.

  • Mistakes. Mistakes are not all equal. Some are big, and some are not so big. But they generally have one thing in common – they are time snatchers. They cost you some measure of time. That loss of time is often multiplied because of the human error chain reaction. For example, the mistake, whatever it may be, delays the processing of the report for a few hours, which in turn delays report delivery until the next day, a day later than promised.

    Humans, of course, will always make mistakes. It’s the human condition. However, the way we deal with our mistakes is what counts. Do we admit them and apologize or find ways to hide them? Do we have a mindset to learn from them or have a cavalier attitude? On the positive side, our mistakes can be a great teacher. What is the saying – good judgment comes from bad judgment.

  • Bad Habits. Here is a list of everyday bad habits that may rob time from the accountant.

    • Procrastination. Yeah – almost everyone procrastinates from time to time. But when it becomes habitual, then it’s a time problem.
    • Copying the prior accountant (a.k.a. CPA). Blindly following the preceding year’s workpapers may be exceedingly inefficient. This is true even if the previous accountant is yourself.
    • Not embracing change. Some repeatedly cling to the old way of doing things, even if inefficient compared to the modernized way. Let’s face it, the car is faster than the horse and buggy. Innovative technology has proven to be a tremendous time saver. There was a time I would scribble something out on paper and give it to the secretary to type. Now, I type it myself. It saves time.

  • Due Date Bunching. Many due dates for federal and state informational returns and tax returns bunch up from January through April 15. This includes gift tax returns, form 1099 series, form W-2 and W-3 series, individual tax returns, pass-through entities tax returns (partnership, most S-Corporations, and LLCs), federal and state unemployment tax returns, and many others.

    This bunching was exacerbated several years back when the rules changed for flow-through entities, requiring most to report on the calendar year. Provisions were made under the tax code whereby the company could retain its fiscal year. But this required enhanced estimated tax payments and added complexity to the process.

    Make intelligent use of extensions to spread out the workload. I understand that this is easier said than done. Many clients may resist because of personal reasons or concerns it may trigger an audit by the IRS.

  • Social Media. Yeah. I’m not a big fan of social media. A Google search pulled up the top 20 social media platforms. My gosh, I had no idea there were so many. I’m talking about Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, and TikTok. At the very bottom of the list of 20 was Linkedin. That’s the one I’m signed up for. Figures. I do use YouTube from time to time. It can be helpful and entertaining. I understand that WhatsApp has a business platform that can be useful.

    But on the whole, it’s apparently too easy to misuse social media platforms, be sucked in and brainwashed with bizarre misinformation, repeated over and over, and become addicted. What I’m describing is a sad waste of precious time. So perhaps we should carefully choose the ones we use and not be hooked and fooled by the endless hype.

  • Technology. Technology is also on my list of friends of time. So I’m not anti-technology. But as an accountant, I’m not anxious to be on the cutting edge. Artificial intelligence technology sounds like a game-changer, and by all accounts, it will be, but please, let others work out the bugs.

    I recall that MS-DOS performed in a stable and mature environment, but the introduction of Windows was somewhat buggy until it matured. So our firm began using Windows with version 3.1. But even version 3.1 was problematic. Remember the blue screen of death? That meant a total system failure – and lost data. Becoming so enamored with technology before it has matured can be counter-productive, expensive, and a time waster.

Friends of Time. Here is my short list of time savers for accountants.

  • Organization/Planning. In my view, the number one required trait for an accountant is organization. If anything, we should be organized. We should think in an organized fashion. And organization involves the habit of planning. Plan your day, your week, your month, plan the audit, plan whatever. Just plan. It’s a huge time saver and pays dividends.
  • Information Technology. IT has removed much of the drudgery of accounting work and replaced it with speed and accuracy. We’re talking about tax preparation programs, electronic spreadsheets, word processing applications, mobile phones, internet search engines, email, texting, scanners, cloud applications, cloud storage, audit workflow management tools, etc. These tools were developed or introduced to main street accountants since I entered the profession. These mature applications are time savers.
  • Sleep. Sleep is a friend of the time you are awake. It enables you to perform at your best and is essential for good health. Functioning on inadequate sleep is not a badge of honor, as some who wear it must think. On the contrary, a chronic lack of sleep directly steals quality from your waking hours.
  • Be Diligent in Your Work. Diligence makes the task at hand more enjoyable. Strive for excellence, but not perfection. The former produces a suitable and spot-on work product, but the latter is a heavy burden for yourself and those that work with you. So diligence is a friend of time because it results in balance.
  • Listen and Delegate. Listen to your co-workers. Truly listen. When you pick up on their interest and strengths, delegate where you can. They will appreciate having an assignment that plays to their interest and strengths. You will benefit by freeing up your time and perhaps having a better work product than you may have produced. Not a bad thing.

My high school basketball coach would tell us don’t squander time; it’s the stuff that life is made from. I’m sure the words of wisdom were a quote, but he never told us who. Perhaps he thought unnecessary elaboration was a waste of time.

Revenue Recognition For Contractors

Does it Seem Easier Now?

Now that contractors have a few years of practical experience working with the revenue recognition standards under ASC 606, does it seem a bit friendlier than expected? Perhaps so. Or maybe it seems that way because we’ve been working with it for a while now.

We thought this would be an excellent time to review a few significant tenants of the standard. After working with ASC 606 for a time, a refresher of pivotal provisions may help solidify our understanding. So briefly–here we go.

Remember the five steps?

  1. Identify the contract(s) with a customer
  2. Identify the performance obligation(s)
  3. Determine the transaction price
  4. Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations
  5. Recognize revenue when (or as) performance obligations are satisfied.
  1. Identify the Contract. For a contractor, identification of a contract is usually the easy part. It’s in the name– right? Unfortunately, a contractor’s contract may be a mountain of documents, including the core contract, specs, drawings, and many change orders. Or depending on the nature of the contractor’s business, it may be very sketchy and driven by purchase orders. Nevertheless, if there’s a meeting of the minds between two or more parties and it creates enforceable rights and obligations – you have a contract. However, to recognize revenue under ASC 606, all of the following must be met:

    • It has the approval and commitment of the parties
    • Rights are identified
    • Payment terms are identified
    • It has commercial substance, and
    • The collectibility of substantially all consideration is probable. Probable means it is likely to be collected.

    What does “likely to be collected” mean? From a practical viewpoint, if the likelihood of collection is 75% or better, many practicing accountants consider the probable threshold met.

    When should the contractor reassess collectability? Question 10 of the FASB’s Revenue Recognition Implementation Q&As (January 2020) (FASB Q&A) addressed this question. There must be a significant change in the customer’s ability to pay before the contractor reassess whether revenue recognition must stop.

  2. Identify the performance obligation(s). Are the costs of pre-production activities included in the percentage of completion (POC) measurement? For example, consider the cost of mobilizing equipment, labor mobilization, and construction of a temporary site office. Do those activities provide goods or services impacting POC revenue recognition? Also, what about pre-construction design services? Do such cost activities transfer a service measured under the POC calculation?

    The FASB Q&A attempts to shed some light on this. Question 16 is as follows: How should an entity assess whether pre-production activities are a promised good or service (or included in the measure of progress toward complete satisfaction of a performance obligation that is satisfied over time)?

    The pre-production activity will enter into the POC measurement if the activity is a promised good or service. However, if the activity does not transfer a good or service to the customer, it is not included in the POC measurement.

    Whether or not to include pre-production activities in the POC measurement is a matter of judgment. Consider whether there has been a transfer of goods or services to the customer. Suppose mobilization is a line item on the schedule of value, whereby the company has the right to payment for its cost plus a reasonable profit. In that case, mobilization represents progress toward completion because it is a contractual promised good or service, as evidenced in the contractual schedule of values.

    On the other hand, if the site office is not included in the schedule of value, its cost probably doesn’t transfer a good or service to the contract owner. Therefore, it would not be a cost included in the POC revenue measurement.

    An acid test that the FASB Q&A offers is whether control of the good or service is ever transferred to the customer. The overriding question is whether the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the construction company. For example, if pre-construction design drawings are provided to the contract owner, the owner has received and consumed the benefit. This is because he has the drawings in hand and under his control. Therefore, the cost of the design services would impact the POC calculation.

  3. Determine the transaction price. Due to the nature of construction contracts, estimating total revenue at completion is complex. Much of the complexity relates to variable consideration. Variable consideration can take many forms. For example, variability can relate to performance bonuses, incentive payments, liquidated damages, unpriced change orders, and contract claims.

    ASC 606 provides two methods for estimating variable consideration.

    1. Expected value approach
    2. Most likely amount approach

    The choice of approach is not an election. Instead, the company can select whichever method is expected to predict the amount better.

    After estimating variable consideration, the company must consider the revenue recognition restraints. Then, based on an evaluation of those restraints, variable consideration is included in the transaction price when it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur or when the uncertainty is resolved. In other words, the contractor includes the amount they expect to be entitled to in the transaction price.

  4. Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations. This step is required if you identify more than one performance obligation embedded in the construction contract. In that case, the contract price will be allocated between the several performance obligations.

    On the other hand, the contractor may find that many complex tasks in a contract intertwine into a single performance obligation. This happens when the contractor provides a significant service of integrating a complex set of tasks and components into a single project.

  5. Recognize revenue when (or as) performance obligations are satisfied. For a contractor, the question is, at inception, will revenue recognition be over-time or at a point in time? To decide this, the company must first determine if the revenue stream meets the over time recognition criteria. If not, then revenue is recognized at a point in time by default.

    ASC 606 provides three criteria to determine if control of a good or service transfers to the customer over time. If any of the criteria described below are met, revenue recognition is over time. If none of the criteria below are met, revenue is recognized at a point in time.

    1. The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as the company performs.
    2. The customer controls the asset as it is created or enhanced by the company.
    3. The company creates or enhances an asset that has no alternative use to the company, and the company has a right to be paid for work completed to date.

    An example of the first criterion noted above would be hauling services. If the customer contracted for materials to be hauled from Nashville to Memphis, it’s likely that the customer simultaneously receives and consumes benefits as the trucker performs (over time). Why? If the truck breaks down at Bucksnort 60 miles up Interstate 40, the customer could (theoretically, anyway) hire another nearby trucker to haul the materials for the remainder of the route. The replacement trucker would obviously not be required to repeat the trip from Nashville to Bucksnort. That means the customer both received and consumed the benefit of the materials being hauled from Nashville to Bucksnort.

    An example of the second criterion would be a commercial building constructed on real property owned by the customer (contract owner). As the contract owner is progress billed, he accepts control of the asset as work is completed in stages. That’s the justification for percentage-of-completion revenue recognition and, for that matter, progress billing. It’s revenue recognition over time.

    The third criterion can be illustrated as follows. The contractor has a long-term contract with the U.S. Department of Energy for civil construction on a project unique to the Department’s classified purpose. Therefore, the contractor has no alternative use for the asset under construction. Additionally, if the DOE halted construction after 50% completion, the contractor has a contractual right to payment for the work completed. Accordingly, revenue recognition will be measured over time.

Leases – Part Five

Five Areas Where It’s Easy to Stump Your Toe

ASC 842 is in full swing now. Most private companies and CPA firms have been in the weeds for some time. It would be an understatement to say the standard is massive and not entirely transparent. Because ASC 842 is principle-based and yet very specific in certain areas, it’s far too easy to make implementation errors. In no particular order, here are my top five areas prone to mistakes.

  1. Misunderstanding the Effective Date for Interim Financial Statements. The effective date for private companies and private not-for-profit entities is fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. This includes all annual financial statements with dates that begin in 2022. However, it does not include interim periods that begin in 2022. For example, a company that prepares interim financial statements for May 1, 2022, through October 31, 2022, would account for leases under ASC 840 unless the company implements ASC 842 early. This is because the FASB set the effective date for interim financial statements for a year later, i.e., interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022.

  2. Not Giving Sufficient Thought to Elections. The standard is replete with various elections that can significantly affect the complexity and results of lease accounting. These elections include:
    • Short-term lease. This is a very beneficial election made at the class level to not apply the lease standard to leases of twelve months or less.
    • Nonlease components. This is an election, made at the class level, to combine lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. This election can significantly reduce the complexity of accounting but may increase the lease liability.
    • Discount rate. This is an election, made at the class level, to use the risk-free rate to measure the lease liability. This election reduces complexity but will generally increase the lease liability.
    • Classification Criteria. One classification criterion is determining if the lease term is a major part of the underlying asset’s economic life. A policy election may be made to define major part as 75%. Another classification criterion is determining if the lease payments’ present value is substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset. An election can be made to define substantially all as 90%.

      These elections bring back the bright-line rules under ASC 840. The good thing about these elections is that they provide a bright line. But the bad thing about these elections is that the decision is made using bright lines instead of professional judgment.

    • Transition Package Election. Transition relief must be elected as a package that streamlines and simplifies the transition of leases under the old standard to ASC 842.

  3. Embedded Leases. Are you familiar with the Shakespearian expression “beware the Ides of March”? Well, beware of embedded leases. They can hide in service contracts, subcontracts, and who knows where? Even though not described as such, they are leases in sheep’s clothing that must be carved out and accounted for as leases under ASC 842. Think in terms of significant underlying assets, like cranes and scaffolding.

  4. Reasonably Certain. What is reasonably certain? This one is hard to tie up into a nice pretty bow. Even though the concept of reasonably certain is critical under the standard, it is not defined in ASC 842.

    In which areas does the concept of reasonably certain become important?

    • Options to extend the lease term
    • Options to purchase the underlying asset
    • Options to terminate the lease
    • Lease classification (finance or operating)
    • Short-term lease election
    • Lease liabilities measurement
    • Lease ROU asset measurement

    As can be seen, the concept impacts several essential areas. Even though important, there are no bright lines. Some commentators have suggested that reasonably certain is 75% or better certainty. Others have suggested that it is “almost certain.” One thing is certain, though. The certainty rests in the minds of the company’s decision-makers. It will take sound professional judgment to ascertain the degree of reasonableness.

  5. ROU Asset Life. It’s far too easy to stump your toe in this area and, therefore, really mess up the ROU amortization. The ROU asset life is usually the same as the lease term. “ROU asset life equals the lease term” can become automatic to us. After all, this is lease accounting. However, suppose you have a finance lease that transfers ownership or is almost certain to transfer ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee. In that case, the ROU asset’s life is the useful life of the underlying asset (not the lease term.)

    ASC 842-20-35-8 states the following:

    A lessee shall amortize the right-of-use asset from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term. However, if the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee or the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset, the lessee shall amortize the right-of-use asset to the end of the useful life of the underlying asset.

Leases – Part Four

Common Control Lease Arrangements – Give Me a Break?

On November 30, 2022, the FASB issued, for public comment, Exposure Draft 2022-ED500 Leases (Topic 842)-Common Control Arrangements (Update). The Update proposes significant changes to common control arrangements (leases between related party entities) in two areas:

Issue 1. Determining if a related party lease between entities under common control exists and, if so, the classification and accounting for that lease, and

Issue 2. Lessee accounting for leasehold improvements associated with leases between parties under common control.

The proposed amendment to Issue 1 above would be available as a practical expedient for private companies and most not-for-profit entities. The proposed changes to Issue 2 above would be open to all entities (public, private, and not-for-profit.)

Comments are due January 16, 2023. Based on the AICPA’s discussions with the FASB staff, the Board will attempt to promptly issue a final ASU after considering public comment.

Will it be effective for private companies implementing ASC 842 in 2022? Maybe. However, in the exposure draft, the Board decided it would establish the effective date of the final amendment after receiving comments. If the exposure draft is issued as written, it will provide improved clarity and simplification to the determination, classification, and accounting for related party entity leases. Additionally, it will more faithfully represent the economic realities of leasehold improvement for related party leases between entities under common control.

Related Party Arrangements. Under ASC 842, companies are to determine if a related party arrangement is a lease and, if so, classify and account for the lease based on legally enforceable terms and conditions. However, what is legally enforceable between related parties under common control can be complex. Often, related party entities are owned by the same individual or group of individuals; thus, determining legally enforceable terms is ambiguous at best. In addition, there are often roadblocks in obtaining a meaningful legal opinion on a hypothetical with such a potentially fluid fact pattern.

This determination is often complicated by the existence of substantial leasehold improvements to the underlying lease asset made and owned by the related party lessee. ASC 842 generally requires leasehold improvements to be amortized over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the useful life of the leasehold improvements. This approach often does not recognize the economic realities between related parties under common control and may distort the presentation of operations.

But the Update appears to provide some much-needed relief. Here’s what it proposes.

Issue 1: Terms and Conditions to be Considered. A practical expedient is provided whereby the written terms and conditions of a common control arrangement (in contrast to the legally enforceable terms and conditions provision found in ASC 842) are used to determine the following:

  1. Whether a lease exists and, if so,
  2. The classification of and accounting for that lease.

Under the practical expediency, the Company would not be required to determine if the written terms are legally enforceable. Additionally, the practical expediency may be applied on an arrangement-by-arrangement basis. However, the practical expedient is not available if there are no written terms and conditions (i.e., no written contract). In such a case, the Company must continue using legally enforceable terms and conditions to apply the provisions in ASC 842.

Importantly, the Update permits the Company to document any existing unwritten terms and conditions of an arrangement between entities under common control before the date on which the Company’s first interim or annual financial statements are available to be issued in accordance with the amendments of the proposed Update.

Issue 2: Accounting for Leasehold Improvements. The Update would require the following for leasehold improvements associated with related party leases between entities under common control:

  1. Leasehold improvements should be amortized by the lessee over the economic life of the leasehold improvements (regardless of the lease term) as long as the lessee controls the underlying asset under a lease agreement.

    However, if the lessor obtained the right to control the underlying asset through a lease with an entity not part of the same controlled group, the amortization period may not exceed the lease term of the lessor’s unrelated party lease.

  2. Leasehold improvements should be accounted for as a transfer between related parties via an adjustment to equity when the lessee no longer controls the use of the underlying asset.

This is a significant change. As stated above, ASC 842 generally requires that leasehold improvements be amortized over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the useful life of the improvements. If the related party lease is classified as a short-term lease, the lessee’s operations could be punished because of misleading rapid amortization. Under the Update, generally, the amortization period would be the economic life of the leasehold improvements with respect to the related party group. This would be a significant and much-needed amendment to ASC 842.

Stay tuned. We’ll see what the FASB decides to do. And if the Board acts quickly enough, whether it will be applicable to unissued 2022 financial statements.

Leases – Part Three

Lease Accounting is No Cake-Walk

I remember when the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued FAS No. 13, Accounting for Leases, in November 1976. I was tasked with outlining the standard for the firm where I worked. Now, here it is in November, some 46 years later, and I’m looking at the latest rendition of the lease standard—ASC 842. When comparing the two, FAS 13 was much kinder and gentler than ASC 842, even though FAS 13 did not seem that way at the time. Under FAS 13, there were bright lines, and the accounting was more straightforward. For example, operating leases were not capitalized nor depreciated. On the other hand, capital leases, as the name implies, were capitalized and depreciated; thus, you could account for them in much the same way as you did with property, plant, and equipment.

However, ASC 842 requires capitalization of all leases on the balance sheet, both operating and finance leases. That is, unless you choose to make the short-term lease election not to capitalize a lease with a term of twelve months or less. Additionally, after the initial recording of the right-to-use asset and lease liability, ASC 842 requires different accounting for operating and finance leases on the income statement. This is because the FASB conceptually views finance leases more akin to property, plant, and equipment. But it considers operating leases conceptually more like the old FAS 13 operating leases and, therefore, affords them treatment on the income statement similar to that found in FAS 13.

This article will describe a few complex areas of ASC 842 for the lessee as a heads-up to those who have not yet made the deep dive into the (semi) new accounting standard. And by the way, if you are not up to speed on ASC 842 yet, it might be wise to set aside some time over the holidays to become more familiar with its oddities. It isn’t easy to wrap your head around it because leases are structured in countless ways. While the standard is principle-based to accommodate the many variations in lease agreements, it is also very specific in numerous areas to facilitate consistency in practice. And some of it may seem counter-intuitive.

The Components of a Lease Contract. A lease contract may specify payments for more types of components than just a lease component. Identifying each component of a lease contract is essential because each component type is to receive an allocation of the contract consideration, which is accounted for under different sections of the ASC.

A lease contract can have three broad components:

  1. Lease component
  2. Non-lease component
  3. Non-components

A good or service must be transferred to the lessee or customer to be considered a contract component. This is important because consideration in the contract is only allocated to components that transfer a good or service. Contract components are the first two identified above (i.e., lease component and non-lease component).

If the transfer of goods or services relates to an asset used in a leasing arrangement, it is considered a lease component subject to the rules of ASC 842. This includes leases for:

  • Real property (building and land)
  • Vehicles
  • Construction equipment
  • Copiers, etc.

All other payments for goods and services transferred in the contract are non-lease components accounted for under other GAAP (e.g., ASC 606 Revenue Recognition). This would include payments for:

  • Common area maintenance services
  • Management fees
  • Security services
  • Repairs and maintenance of the leased asset

Payments in the contract that are not for the transfer of goods and services are considered non-components. This would include the following:

  • Reimbursements of insurance and property taxes to the lessor or third party for the benefit of the lessor.
  • Administrative tasks to initiate the lease.

As stated above, contract consideration (see ASC 842-10-30-5 and ASC 842-10-15-35) is only allocated to lease and non-lease components. Notice that contract consideration is not assigned to non-components of the contract. This allocation can be a difficult and time-consuming process. However, the standard provides a way to simplify the accounting via an election to combine lease and non-lease components and treat all payments as lease payments.

The Consideration in a Contract. So what is consideration in a lease contract? Under ASC 842-10-30-5 – Consideration in the contract at the commencement date includes:

  • Fixed payments, including in substance fixed payments, less any lease incentives paid or payable
  • Variable lease payments that depend on an index or rate, initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date
  • The exercise price of an option to purchase the underlying asset if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise the option
  • Payments for penalties for terminating the lease
  • Fees paid by the lessee to the owners of a special-purpose entity for structuring the transaction
  • Amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under residual value guarantees

Additionally, ASC 842-10-15-35 specifies that consideration in a contract includes all payments described above in paragraph 842-10-30-5 as well as the following payments made during the lease term:

  • Any fixed payments or in substance fixed payments, less any incentives paid or payable
  • Any other variable payments that depend on an index or a rate, initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date.

Notice that consideration in a contract can include payments for lease components, non-lease components, and non-components if it meets the criteria stated above. For example, fixed payments for lease components, non-lease components, and non-components would all be included as consideration in a contract. However, the contract consideration would only be allocated to the lease and non-lease components unless the election not to allocate is made. In such a case, all the fixed payments mentioned would be considered lease component payments.

The Underlying Land in a Building Lease. Building leases are somewhat problematic. Should the underlying land be considered a separate lease? The answer is “maybe yes and maybe no—it ain’t necessarily so.”

The initial question is whether the underlying land can even be considered a lease. ASC 842-10-15-3 defines a lease as follows:

A contract is or contains a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

So the overriding question is whether the lessee has the right to control the use of the underlying land. A follow-up question is, does the lessee have the right to control all or a substantial portion of the use of the building? If so, it would seem that the lessee also has the right to control the use of the underlying land. This right to control the use of identified property (land) determines that the contract contains a land lease. So how much control is “substantial”? It’s a matter of judgment, but many commentators think the ability to control 90% or more of the economic benefits of the building is substantial control that enables the lessee to control 100% of the underlying land.

Once control of the underlying land is established and considered a separate lease component, should part of the consideration in the contract be allocated to the land lease? ASC 842-10-15-29 states that:

…an entity shall account for the right to use land as a separate lease component unless the accounting effect of doing so would be insignificant (for example, separating the land element would have no effect on lease classification of any lease component or the amount recognized for the land component would be insignificant.)

Therefore, land should be considered a separate component and be allocated a portion of the consideration in the contract unless doing so would be insignificant.

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